Nepal is officially the Federal Democratic Republic country from 2008. The scholars believed that the word “Nepal” was derived from the word “Nepa” which referred to the Newar Kingdom, the present day Kathmandu Valley. The Newar word Nepa became Nepal with Sanskritization. Before the advent of Shah Dynasty, all the inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley and its peripheries (called Nepa) were referred as Newars.
Nepal is not only the birth place of Lord Buddha and country of Mt. Everest but also the land of brave Gurkha soldiers and the play ground of mystical snowman 'yeti'. Nepal is a country with one of the most diverse and rich cultures and traditions in the world. It is equally drivers in its flora and fauna. People belonging to various ethnic groups have been living here peacefully side by side for thousands of years. Nepal covers only 1,47,181 square kilometers and a population of approximately 30 million, by land mass Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest and the 41st most populous country in the world. The Nepalese people are of quite and gentle nature and are known for their hospitable behavior. Nepal is sandwiched and landlocked between two giant neighbors Republic of India to south, east & west and Republic of China to the north. It has maintained its very good relationship with both the countries. Nepal offers the best kind of adventures to the visitors, such as mountain climbing, hill trekking, elephant riding, jungle safari, white river rafting etc. There adventures and provide just the right taste for the visitors or foreigners who are longing to enjoy their stay in Nepal, and that can be done within a few hours drive from Kathmandu valley itself.
The Nepalese Himalayans contains 8 of the 10 highest peaks on the earth including Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest 8848m.), the tallest of all and deepest valleys as well as low elevation forests filled with rare animal species. Its river is wide, huge and they are potential to produce the largest hydropower in the world after Brazil. It has every kind of climate from extreme cold in the north to the tropical weather in the south. Kathmandu, the capital city experiences the weather, which is somewhat temperate.
Nepal enjoys possessing the eight-world heritage sites (cultural) offered by UNESCO including the birthplace of Lord Buddha. The Nepalese art and architecture are of awe and wonder. Nepal has more than 61 ethnic groups and 70 spoken languages, all have their own culture and tradition. It is said "many temples as many houses and many god-goddess as many people" in the Kathmandu valley. Kathmandu is also the cultural and artistic heart of Nepal and contains some of the oldest and best preserved cities in the world.
Climate of Nepal
Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in south summers are tropical and winters are mild.
Nepal has six seasons.
Spring - Basanta April-May
Summer - Grishma June-July
Monsoon - Barsha Late June-Mid September
Autumn - Sharad September-November
Winter - Hiund December-January
Windy - Sisir February-March
An average temperature drop of 6°C occurs for every 1,000 m gain in altitude. In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 37° C and higher in some areas, winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under sub zero. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively.
The Himalayas act as a barrier to the cold winds blowing from Central Asia in winter, and forms the northern boundary of the monsoon wind patterns. Eighty percent of the precipitation is received during the monsoon (June-September). Winter rains are more pronounced in the western hills. The average annual rainfall is 1,600 mm, but it varies by eco-climatic zones, such as 3,345 mm in Pokhara and below 300 mm in Mustang. An interesting fact is that there is no seasonal constraint on traveling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views. As with most of the trekking areas in Nepal, the best time to visit are during spring and autumn. Spring is the time for rhododendrons while the clearest skies are found after the monsoon in October and November. However, Nepal can be visited the whole year round.
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